Thursday, November 6, 2014

California's record low turnout

It's so disappointing when you put on a big event and folks don't show up.

That's how I expect a lot of registrars and poll workers felt after Tuesday's election. We'll find out later today how many ballots remain to be counted. The Field Poll projected 8.2 million Californians would vote.

That's a lot, but compared to how many are registered and eligible, it's a smaller share of the number who participated the last time. And the time before that.

Why is participation on the decline? I offered some answers to that question yesterday to Jason Hoppin, a reporter from the Monterey Herald who discovered his county's turnout had dropped by double digits. Here's an excerpt from his story today: 
Brown's bid for an unprecedented fourth term, the 2014 ballot was left without a marquee matchup to drive midterm turnout: voter participation will likely settle in the mid-40s, an unprecedented low. 
"I wish I knew. More and more people are bringing their ballots at the last minute to the polls, that's one of the things that happening. But the low turnout, I don't (know)," Monterey County Registrar of Voters Claudio Valenzuela said. "Midterms are different." 
The problem is not unique to Monterey County: turnout was low across the state. Kim Alexander, president of the California Voter Foundation, outlined several factors she believes are pushing the numbers down, including declining home ownership, long ballots, less partisanship — a quarter of the state's voters no longer align themselves with a political party — and California's top-two primary system, which often pushes minor-party candidates off the general election ballot. 
Alexander also cited a rise in negative campaigning and the influence of fundraising, with well-heeled candidates hiring professional advisers to target campaigns at likely voters, leaving infrequent voters out of the loop. 
"We have a really skewed system where some people receive way more information than they need, and other voters, who really need it, receive absolutely none," Alexander said. 
Brown's shoo-in campaign was also a factor, she added. The governor put little effort into his re-election bid, which did nothing to stir interest in the race. 
"Every ballot needs a loss leader. Every ballot needs something that's going to draw people out, and we didn't have that on this ballot," Alexander said. 
Furthermore, 70 percent of Monterey County now gets a mail ballot. Stunningly, in a county of 415,000 people and 165,000 eligible voters, just 15,000 people went to a polling place on Election Day.  
Alexander said mail ballots can contribute to turnout problems. Some voters lose ballots without realizing they can request another, or don't know they can drop the ballot off on Election Day. In addition, 3 percent of the mail ballots statewide weren't counted in the June primary, due to a number of factors. 
"That's a higher error rate than the hanging chads of the 2000 presidential contest in Florida," Alexander said, adding the state needs to help fund local mail ballot programs.  
"We need a wholesale review of the program, because you've got a lot of ballots out there that are not connecting with voters," she added. 

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Top Ten Online Resources & Five Vote-by-Mail Tips

The California Voter Foundation has issued our Top Ten Online Resources to help voters make informed choices in Tuesday's Election! Also available - Five tips to ensure your vote-by-mail ballot gets counted.

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Every election could use a song

As a kid growing up in Los Angeles in the 1970's, I watched a lot of Saturday morning cartoons. In between Bugs Bunny and HR Puffnstuff there would be these musical interludes, called Schoolhouse Rock!. In the early morning hours on a non-school day I would learn about how a bill becomes a law, that three is a magic number, plus some grammar, economics and science thrown in.

I'm guessing many of my fellow GenXers were also strongly influenced by this series. So many times I've reminisced with friends about how valuable it was to learn about important stuff through song.

That's why in 2000, when California voters were facing 20 ballot propositions, I decided to write the first Proposition Song. The idea was simple: give voters a brief, 3-minute overview of each of the propositions on the ballot so they can sort them out and have a better sense of which one does what and what voting yes or no would mean.

The idea of using music and song to inform and entertain people at the same time has a long history.  Folk music originated as a way to pass along knowledge in times of widespread illiteracy. Campaign songs in the U.S. date back to 1824. Songs help win revolutions.

Most of the information voters get in elections comes from the government or campaigns and is in the written form - voter guides, pamphlets, sample ballots. Offering information in an audio/visual format gives voters an alternative to the usual. Happily voters have alternatives this election. In addition to the Proposition Song, there is SeePolitical, a nonprofit, nonpartisan group producing high-quality
two-minute animated videos about the measures on the ballot.

One of the most satisfying parts of creating the Proposition Song is that so many people want to help and participate. About a month ago, I wasn't planning on writing a song this year. With only six propositions on the ballot, I didn't have much material to work with. Plus none of the propositions rose to the "water cooler conversation" level. When CVF board members asked if there'd be a song, I told them I had the proposition blues. Well, they said, write a song about that!

The very next morning I woke up and wrote half of it by 10 a.m. The rest came a few days later. Within a week I'd recruited some friends to play it with me. We rehearsed it on a Tuesday, recorded it two days later, performed it that night, edited the video a few days after that, and released it last week. It all came together very quickly, with many people stepping in to help. I realized the Proposition Song is bigger than me. It is a community project that lots of people look forward to, and putting it all together is honestly one of the most fun parts of my job. 

California Voter Foundation's 2014 Proposition Song

Sunday, October 12, 2014

A new proposition song!

Just (barely) in time for the upcoming election, I've come up with a new proposition song. Also a new
tune! I will be recording it with friends soon but in the meantime here are the lyrics.

Musicians and singers are welcome to join us on Thursday, Oct. 16 at Old Ironsides in downtown Sacramento at 7:30 p.m. to participate in the recording and performance.

Thanks to the CVF board, my friends and family, the Gerbode Foundation and undisclosed sources deep within California government for help with this project.

The first Proposition Song was for the 2000 election, followed by songs in 2006, 2010 and 2012. There is also a bootleg 2009 California Special Election song we recorded but didn't release.

Making proposition songs is something that brings me joy and I hope it does the same for you! Mostly I hope you sing and play along.

The California Proposition Blues

Tune: Traditional Blues
Lyrics: Kim Alexander

Just the other day it arrived in the mail,
My official voter guide I said, “What the hell?”
            A7                                           E
Let’s take a look, see what it’s all about
  B7                             A7                            E             B7
I read and read but I still can’t figure it out.

Started with the first one, Proposition One
It’s not in the same guide as the rest of ‘em
It’s “Supplemental” – it arrived later on
That’s why it took a bit longer to write this song

So I went online for the pros and cons
Turns out Prop. 1 is a water bond
It could help address the drought in our state
Seven billion to pay for infrastructure that’s out of date

Prop. 2 is next, it’s a complicated one
Something about the state’s rainy day fund
If it passes, we’ll have to save more
And pay down the state’s debts faster than we did before

Bear with me now, this doesn’t make sense
But Prop. 45 is the one that comes next
It’s confusing, but watcha gonna do?
I’ll vote but still have the California Proposition Blues

See, the insurance commissioner wants more control
The health insurance companies, they say “No!”
As a voter, it’s up to you to choose
I understand if you’ve got the California Proposition Blues

The next one is also a health care prop
46 affects California’s docs
It changes the cap on medical suits
And tries to cut down on alleged doctor drug abuse.

47 is next and it deals with crime
Should non-violent offenders do less time?
Supporters say, vote yes because
They think we should change California sentencing laws

48’s unlike the rest of ‘em
No initiative, it’s a referendum
In support, some tribes they do rally
A yes vote allows a new casino in the Central Valley

If you want more info, you can go online
Try we’re open all the time
We’ll help you decide who should win or lose
And help you avoid the California Proposition Blues!

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

What we can learn from Netflix to speed up ballot delivery

Last night, as I was putting the final touches on the California Voter Foundation's new report, Improving the Vote-by-Mail Process: A Three-County Study, I heard the mailman outside our door, picking up the Netflix DVD I was returning. It was past 6:30 p.m.

"Hmm," I thought, "He's here kind of late today."

First thing in the morning, while getting our report ready to distribute, I check my email. There is a message from Netflix. "We've received: Frozen" it says. It was timestamped 6:40 a.m. In twelve hours, that DVD went from my porch to Netflix and was logged into their system as received.

This was not the first time I considered how nearly magical the Netflix-U.S. Mail delivery process is. (And I am aware that it is a matter of controversy.) But in the past few weeks, as we have been finishing up our vote-by-mail study and recommending improvements to reduce vote-by-mail balloting errors, I increasingly began to wonder: what is Netflix doing so right that we are getting so wrong with our mail ballots, many of which arrive too late to count?

For starters, Netflix uses first class, postage paid, "Permit Reply" mail. This means the company prepays the postage on the return envelope. And that means the mail piece does not have to pass through a permit office to get dinged off an account before continuing on its postal journey. 

Netflix also has distribution centers all across the country. So the DVD doesn't have to get to one place, it has to get to the nearest Netflix location.

All the pieces weigh the same and look the same. The red envelope is eye-catching and easily recognized by postal employees. Barcodes are used to track the envelope and its contents to the exact customer and address.

The fact is, we could use first class, postage paid "Permit Reply" mail for vote-by-mail ballots. The reason we don't is because it would cost a lot. And voting by mail is a convenience, not a right. 

But our political leaders need to consider what we can learn from Netflix and utilize some of those lessons in how we process vote-by-mail ballots. 

To that end, the California Voter Foundation's new report features a number of recommendations, including one to allow voters to return their mail ballots to any election office or polling place in the state. This would allow ballots to get into the custody of the nearest election official and would help reduce disenfranchisement. Topics for further study include considering ways to standardize mail ballot postage rates and creating a uniform envelope statewide that is easily recognizeable. 

Using first class Permit Reply envelopes for voters living in all mail-ballot precincts would also be an improvement. Our study findings indicate that while these voters get postage paid envelopes (since they have no choice but to vote by mail) they require extra time for mail processing so the postage can be debited from the permit holder's account. 

In November 2012 in Sacramento County, 3.3 percent of voters in all mail-ballot precincts cast ballots that were not counted, compared to 1 percent for mail voters overall. And 81 percent of those uncounted ballots from mail ballot precincts were not counted because they arrived too late, compared to the overall late ballot rate of 45 percent.

A ballot is more valuable than a DVD. It's time we treat ballots as the precious items they are and find ways to streamline ballot delivery so fewer people are disenfranchised and more ballots are counted.

Monday, July 14, 2014

California voters had reasons to skip primary

The lowest percentage of voters in California history turned out for the June 2014 California Primary election, according to the Certified Statement of the Vote released last Friday by California Secretary of State Debra Bowen. Approximately 4.5 million Californians - one out of every four registered voters in the state and 18 percent of eligible voters - cast ballots in the June 3rd election. 

Voters had some good reasons to skip the primary, as explained in this op-ed I wrote which was published the Saturday after the election in the Sacramento Bee. Excerpts are featured below.

Californians have never shown much interest in participating in primaries. Only once in the last 100 years (1938) have more than half of eligible Californians participated in a primary election.

Turnout among registered voters has also dropped dramatically, peaking in 1976 at 73 percent and sliding down ever since. There have been a few high points since then, when we moved our presidential primary to an earlier date to give Californians more say. In March 2000, 54 percent of registered voters participated, and in February 2008, 58 percent participated. But overall, primary turnout, especially in nonpresidential elections, has hovered around 30 or 40 percent.
One explanation is the steep decline in party affiliation and dramatic rise in the number of independent voters. In 1990, 89 percent of the state’s registered voters were affiliated with either the Democratic or the Republican parties while 9 percent were registered as independents and 2 percent with minor parties.
Today, 72 percent of California’s voters affiliate with the two major parties, while 21 percent are independents and 7 percent are with minor parties. While under the top-two primary election system, independents now have a say in whittling down the choices for November, it doesn’t change the fact that until very recently, primaries were intended for parties to select their nominees for the general election. With a growing percentage of California voters choosing to affiliate with neither of the major parties, it should come as no surprise that participation in primaries is dropping.
Today, 72 percent of California’s voters affiliate with the two major parties, while 21 percent are independents and 7 percent are with minor parties. While under the top-two primary election system, independents now have a say in whittling down the choices for November, it doesn’t change the fact that until very recently, primaries were intended for parties to select their nominees for the general election. With a growing percentage of California voters choosing to affiliate with neither of the major parties, it should come as no surprise that participation in primaries is dropping.
Another reason why many people are sitting out elections is that no one is asking for their vote. Political campaigns are extremely sophisticated in micro-targeting their communications only to those voters most likely to vote, and ignoring everyone else.
California’s decline in homeownership rates and relatively low rates of homeownership compared to other states may also be a factor. Homeowners vote in higher rates than renters for several reasons. First, as property-tax payers, they have a greater stake in government decisions. Second, they are likely to be wealthier than the general public and feel a greater need to protect their interests. And, unlike renters, they stay put, and so are more likely to become familiar with their political districts and elected officials.
According to the U.S. census, California’s homeownership rate dropped from 60 percent in 2005 to 56 percent in 2010, which is nearly the same percentage of eligible Californians who voted in the 2012 general election. Other states’ turnout rates similarly match up. Minnesota’s 76 percent turnout rate in 2012 was the highest in the nation, and that state has a 73 percent homeownership rate. New York’s turnout was 54 percent, with homeownership at 55 percent.
Another contributing factor is a lack of funding. Since 2011, Gov. Jerry Brown and the Legislature have withheld money owed to counties to pay for election programs mandated by the state, such as vote by mail. As a result, counties are forced to do more with less, even as the number of eligible and registered voters in California constantly expands. A reduction in state funding can result in reduced election services, such as early voting and voter outreach programs.
And lastly, we have the media’s constant dwelling on the likely low turnout rate leading up to election day. This narrative may well have helped suppress turnout. Occasional voters are highly influenced to vote depending on what others around them are doing, particularly their friends and family. Repeated messages about low voter turnout do little to encourage participation and may in fact contribute to the problem.

Read more here:

Read more here:

Read more here:

Monday, June 2, 2014

Look up your polling place online & other election day tips

On this election eve the California Voter Foundation has a few election tips to share. 

1. Polls are open 7 a.m. - 8 p.m. tomorrow. Please urge your coworkers, friends and family to participate. 
2. Help spread the word that you don't have to vote on everything on the ballot in order for your votes to count. The important thing is to be a voter.

3. While many pundits have been talking about low voter turnout a better message to share is to let people know what a privilege it is to be able to vote and choose who represents us. 

4. Voters looking for their polling place location have a new tool at their fingertips. California Secretary of State Debra Bowen and her staff recently debuted a new statewide polling place lookup tool, produced in collaboration with Google and Pew's Voting Information Project. It also lists statewide candidates and county election office information. This is the first statewide lookup tool made available to California voters. Check it out at

5. Voters who have vote-by-mail ballots and have not returned them should fill them out and take them to any polling place in your home county on Election Day. Postmarks don't count

6. Late arrival, missing signatures and signatures not matching are the three top reasons why some vote-by-mail ballots don't get counted. Make sure yours does by returning it in person on Election Day, signing the envelope, and signing your name the same way you registered to vote. CVF has more tips to help you make it count

7. There are no dumb questions. Voting can be confusing, and election officials are there to help. Use CVF's Directory of County Election Offices to contact your election office with any last-minute questions.

8. If you need to check your registration status, or the status of your vote-by-mail ballot, or want to view an online version of your county sample ballot you can access these resources in most counties via CVF's Directory of County Election Offices.

9. For information about candidates on the ballot and essential election information, visit CVF's California Online Voter Guide.To follow the money and see who's backing a candidate, visit Maplight's Voters Edge.

10. Wear your "I Voted" sticker tomorrow with pride!

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Ten Questions for Secretary of State Candidates

Election season is upon us and the open seat contest for California Secretary of State has drawn a number of candidates, including several who will be debating each other this afternoon at a Sacramento Press Club event

Whenever there is an election for Secretary of State, I'm frequently asked for input on questions to be asked of the candidates. This year I've decided to post a list of suggested questions on my blog - here's hoping a few get asked today!

Ten Questions For Secretary of State Candidates

1. Many voters and would-be voters are uncomfortable with their personal information being made available to secondary users such as political parties and campaigns. As Secretary of State what if anything will you do to address the public’s voter data privacy concerns?

2. Federal law requires state government agencies to offer the public the opportunity to register to vote. What will you do as Secretary of State to ensure this happens?

3. California currently offers no statewide online lookup tools to help voters verify their registration status, locate their polling place or check on the status of their vote-by-mail ballot. What will you do as Secretary of State to provide voters with access to these kinds of tools?

4. There is widespread agreement that the Cal-Access online disclosure system is in need of an overhaul. What specific changes do you want to see made to this system and how will you bring those changes about if elected Secretary of State?

5. Ten years ago California enacted a law to require electronic ballots to be backed up with a voter-verified paper audit trail. Do you support this law?

6. Funding for California counties has been withheld in the state budget since 2011, when Governor Jerry Brown proposed and legislature agreed to suspend the state mandated election programs and no longer provide funding to counties to support those programs. This includes the permanent vote-by-mail program which 43 percent of California’s registered voters are currently enrolled in. As Secretary of State what will you do to ensure counties carry out state election laws in a uniform way?

7. Many vote-by-mail ballots go uncounted in California due to late arrival or voter error. What would you do as Secretary of State to reduce the state’s unsuccessful vote-by-mail ballot rate (among the highest in the nation according to Pew’s Election Performance Index) and get more VBM ballots to be cast successfully and counted?

8. What is your opinion about voting over the Internet?

9. What guarantee can you give to California voters that their ballot was counted correctly? What will you do as Secretary of State to ensure the integrity and accuracy of California’s vote count?

10. Funding for the Secretary of State is provided for in the state budget. As Secretary of State what will you do to ensure that the Legislature and the Governor provide your agency with adequate funding to ensure you can carry out your duties as well as any additional goals and programs you wish to pursue?

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

CVF-NEWS Roundup: Disclosure bills, Covered CA, election funding & Secretary of State race

The March 28th edition of CVF-NEWS was jam-packed with lots of important news updates, covering the following topics:
  • Disclosure bills to give voters information about top proposition donors advance in the Legislature;
  • Covered CA agrees to mail voter registration forms to nearly 4 million applicants;
  • California's legislative budget committees hit the "pause" button on continued suspension of funding for state-mandated local election programs; and
  • Secretary of State race gets underway with candidate forums.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

CVF-NEWS: Election reform reports, and a letter from Pete Seeger

The February 3rd edition of CVF-NEWS highlights two important reports that were recently released - one produced by the Presidential Commission on Election Administration, the second by the Public Policy Institute of California. Also featured in this newsletter is a roundup of the news clips regarding my correspondence with the late and great Pete Seeger.

Friday, January 31, 2014

More news and thoughts about the Pete Seeger letter

This has been an incredible week. The story of the letter I received from the late Pete Seeger has traveled far and wide. I have been hearing from old friends and making new ones from all across the country. I love how the story is traveling between family members, musicians, music teachers and music lovers from all walks of life.

During this week I met and became friends with a photographer online who took a picture of Pete Seeger writing letters. I received an article from a reporter sharing Pete Yarrow's account of his last day with Pete Seeger, which featured a family/community singalong. It is also now featured in my local paper, the Sacramento Bee.

I've had offers from strangers and friends to help publish the pamphlet of jam tips that I wrote to Pete about and will be working on that in the coming weeks, as well as tips for how to organize music jams. Today, my story was shared on NPR's All Things Considered so it will now reach an even wider audience. The NPR story ends with Pete Seeger singing "So Long, It's Been Good to Know You", which left me in tears.

People are celebrating Pete Seeger as a songwriter, musician and activist, and all of that is well-deserved. But to me his greatest gift was as a songleader, in getting people to sing along and experience the joy of singing and participating and making music together. It is one of the most fundamental joys a human being can experience. Today there are song circles and music jams that happen all over the world, but I believe there are even more people who, because of fear and self-doubt, hold back the music that’s inside them. I want to help let it out. That was what I wrote to Pete about and that is what he asked me to do in his letter. I will carry out his wishes – doing so will be one of the most joyous tasks I’ve ever undertaken.

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Letter from Pete Seeger, received Jan. 28, 2014

Like many Americans, I spent much of yesterday thinking about Pete Seeger on the news of his passing. I listened to his songs, watched YouTube performances, and had an NPR "driveway moment" listening to Terry Gross' 1985 interview with the legendary folksinger who has inspired so many, including me.

I wrote a letter to Pete Seeger back in August 2013 asking for his advice about how to spread the message of making music to more people, and included a printout of my "20 Jam Tips" for making music with friends.

To my astonishment and delight, yesterday, the day after his passing, Pete Seeger's response came back. His letter was written in the margins of mine and signed "Pete" with his iconic hand-drawn banjo.

Here's what he wrote:
Dear Kim - I've read this article several times. I think your article on jamming is wonderful and should be printed, not just in Sing Out, but in other magazines as well and issued as a lovely pamphlet, on good paper, with good drawings on the cover. 
But I'm now 94 and can't help much. My health is not good and I'm being cared for by my daughter Tinya. You stay well, keep on. 
94-year-old Pete (with banjo drawing)   Jan. 2014
After sharing this news with a number of friends, it spread to Jason Verlinde, who wrote this wonderful story for Fretboard Journal, including some photos of the letter. Rachel Leibrock has a nice writeup too in the Sacramento News and Review

Here is a closeup scan for a closer look:

It appears I've got some pamphlet printing to get to! Rest in peace Pete Seeger, and thanks for teaching us how to sing along.

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

"Learn to Jam!": 20 Tips for Making Music with Friends

Since 2005 I have made a point of getting together with friends on a regular basis to make music. It's always on Thursday nights and it's called "Music Night".
I recently shared my 20 Jam Tips with legendary folk singer Pete Seeger. He urged me to share them with a wider audience. Here's a quick rundown of the material I plan to put into a "lovely pamphlet", per Pete Seeger's advice:

20 Jam Tips

(i.e. Jam Etiquette or “Jamiquette”)

1. Always tune – spend $20 to get a good electronic tuner to clip on your instrument and use frequently.

2. Identify a few songs you want to play and learn them. Find the chords and lyrics online ( is a great resource) and create songsheets. Find YouTube videos of people playing those songs and play along. Memorize the words and chords so you can play those songs without a songsheet.

3. Put together a binder of your songs and start building your repertoire. Bring your binder with you to jams. Keep your songs roughly in alphabetical order so you can find them quickly. Plastic sleeves make it easier to shuffle songs around & keep songsheets weatherproof.

4. Most songs played are made up of three chords and usually begin on the chord of the key the song is in. Learn the chord sets, the 1-4-5 rule, and practice chord changes within each key and you will be able to play 90% of the songs played in any jam. If you play guitar, learn and use “cheater” bar chords (playing only the bottom four strings) to be able to transition more quickly between chords.

(A/D/E – C/F/G – D/G/A – E/A/B – F/Bb/C – G/C/D).

5. A major chord works in place of a 7th chord almost always (i.e. G/G7, C/C7 etc.)

6. If you play guitar and don’t know the chords to a song being played, watch the hands of someone who does. If you play another instrument learn to recognize guitar chords.

7. Let the songleader lead – even if the song sheet in front of you has different words or a different order for the song parts, let the songleader lead it as he/she wishes, with instrumental breaks, changes in lyrics etc.

8. Wait your turn. Jamming is a “small d” democratic pastime. Generally everyone sits in a circle and each person takes a turn to suggest a song. In more casual, established circles it might be more of a free for all, in which case you should feel free to call out a song when there is a lull – the idea is to avoid monopolizing song suggestions.

9. When it’s your turn, it’s your choice. Be ready to pick a song when it’s your turn. You can lead the song, or suggest a song someone else can lead that you want to hear or play along with.

10. Play appropriate to the jam - suggest songs that are in the style the jam group is playing (country, 70’s rock, bluegrass etc.) and play appropriate instruments (ex: don’t bring electric guitars to an acoustic jam).

11. Call out the chords before you start the song and demonstrate how the “A” and “B” parts of the song go before you actually start playing it.

12. Songleading is hard and requires multitasking: singing, playing, keeping the tempo to the song steady, and watching for people who want to do instrumentals. Take breaks for instrumentals if you have people who want to play them. When it comes time to call them to play, call their name or instrument, or just make eye contact and nod your head or point your finger at them.

13. Get quiet for the instrumentals . The act of calling out an instrumentalist can be very subtle which is why it’s important for all players to pay attention and notice when an instrumental is underway. In an acoustic jam, especially big ones, it can be hard to hear the instrumentalists, so to amplify these players other players will “get quiet” on their instruments.

14. Watch for the end – it’s up to the songleader to decide when a song ends, and he/she will let you know the song is wrapping up by sticking their foot out or calling out “repeat that last line!”. Songleaders may also suggest an “a capella” moment in a song when all instruments are silent – be sure to watch for those too!

15. If you are leading a song, play it all the way through, don’t stop in the middle of it. If you forget the words just repeat a verse you already sang, whistle, sing “meow meow meow….” instead, invite an instrumental interlude or improvise in some other way. You can also bring a song to a premature end and skip verses if it’s really not working. If you start out in the wrong key, change it at the beginning.

16. Avoid using a capo, it makes you hard to follow. If you must use a capo, identify someone else in the group who knows the chords who other people can follow.

17. You don’t have to play every song. If you’re having trouble playing a song, don’t play the wrong chords – use your instrument instead to keep the beat, or sing along, or sit it out, tune, refresh your drink, take a break.

18. Ideally, jam songs are three chord or four chord songs. Five chords is about the maximum. Don’t select songs with too many chords or funky chords that no one knows (unless you all have the same songsheets or lots of people know the song by heart). Such songs are affectionately known as “jambusters”.

19. Don’t record or take pictures without permission. Jamming is not a performance, it’s an interactive experience that can be deeply personal and emotional. Taking pictures or recording people while they are playing can be very distracting and change the nature of the jam if players suddenly feel they must perform for the camera. Many jammers are shy and inexperienced, and often feel they are not “good enough” to play in front of others, so taking pictures or recording is also discouraged for this reason.

20. If you are sitting in the circle, you are in the jam. If you want to chat with someone, smoke, text or talk on the phone, respect other players and move out of the circle.